- Jul 3, 2019
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Microorganisms such as yeast, bacteria and fungi and their enzymes are commonly used in a plethora of food preparations mainly for improving the taste and texture, and they offer substantial economic benefits to industries. Microbial enzymes are the preferred source to plant or animals due to several advantages such as smooth, cost-effective and consistent production.
History of Enzyme Used in Production of Food
Enzymes are extracted from edible plants, tissues of animals, and microorganisms like bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, have been used since ancient times to manufacture food. To make cheese, rennet, an example of a natural enzyme mixture from the stomach of calves or other domestic animals, have been used for centuries. It contains a protease enzyme that coagulates milk, which causes it to bifurcate into liquids (whey) and solids (curds). In addition to this, yeast enzymes are used to ferment grape juice to make wine.
Modern Production of Food Enzymes ( enzyme suppliers )
In the twentieth century, a living cell was isolated from enzymes, which led to large-scale commercial production and broader application of enzymes in the food industry. Today, the most important source of commercial enzymes are microorganisms. Although they do not contain identical enzymes as plants or animals, usually related enzymes can be found that will catalyze the desired reaction. Enzyme manufacturers have optimized microorganisms for the production of enzymes through natural selection and classical breeding techniques.
Papain is obtained from the papaya fruit in the form of dried latex. It is the protease which is most commonly used in food processing application
Peptidase for flavour enhancement in dairy processing industries
Pectin Methyl Esterase
This enzyme is used in fruit firming in yoghurts.
Fungal Alpha Amylase For Bakery
Fungal alpha-amylase preparation for prolonged softness and extended shelf life of baked goods
Cellulase And Beta-Glucanase For Bakery
Cellulase and beta-glucanase preparation for better dough handling and increased volume in high fibre bread
Invertase enzyme to produce invert sugars and Invertase enzyme widely applicable in food industries.
Lactase And Rennin Enzyme
Lactase and rennin widely used in milk industries.
Invertase is used as a catalyzing agent in the breakdown reaction of sucrose that is table sugar. Sugar is hydrolyzed to obtain fructose and glucose. For commercial usage, invertase is obtained from yeast, or bees also synthesize it. It has an optimum pH of 4.5 and stability at 50 °C. It is widely found in the biosphere, majorly in plants and microorganisms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae commonly called baker’s yeast, is the chief strain used for the production and purification of the enzyme. Invertase in nature exists in different isoforms.
- Rennet (protease) Coagulant in cheese production
- Lactose is hydrolyzed to give lactose-free milk products
- Protease Hydrolysis of whey proteins
- Used to break down individual components within fruit and vegetables. For instance, proteins, pectin, starch, and cellulose, this results in surged yields, shorter processing time and improved sensory characteristics. Some examples: to break down cell walls in fruit and vegetables, pectinases and cellulases are used, which result in improved extraction and more yield. Furthermore, they can be used to diminish the viscosity of purees or nectars, and provide ‘cloud stability’ and texture in juices.
- Lactase: An additive for dairy products for individual lacking lactase. Breakdown of lactose is done to obtain whey products for manufacturing polylactide. Acetolactate decarboxylase: Reduction of maturation time in winemaking by converting acetoin from acetolactate. Glucose oxidase: Converting gluconic acid from glucose to prevent Maillard reaction in products caused by the high temperature during dehydration. Cellulase: Conversion of cellulose waste into fermentable feedstock for ethanol or production of single-cell protein. Degradation of cell walls of grains for better extraction of cell contents and release of nutrients.