- Jul 3, 2019
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Polysaccharides Are long chain molecule of simple sugar linked together either straight or branched manner but in a definite fashion. Polysaccharides found in sugar cane are derived from two sources first one is dextran and another one is starch.
The commercial processing of starch to monosaccharides and oligosaccharides depends on the availability of three major enzymes- glucoamylase, alpha-amylase and dextranase. Each of these enzyme has a unique Ph and temperature optimum for use, and so unit operations of a starch plant reflect the varying operation conditions for each individual enzymatic step.
Sugar enzymes accelerate the conversion of starch into glucose. The conversion takes place through the processes namely liquefaction and saccharifaction. Sugarcane plant has many polysaccharides. Cellulose and hemicelluloses, present in cell wall, give the structural strength to the standing cane plant. As they are insoluble in water, consequently they do not affect sugar manufacture. Starch which is responsible for metabolic activity of a growing plant mainly occurs in sugarcane as an insoluble granule. These granules can dissolve during the processing of starch therefore they have an effect on the manufacturing process. Other soluble polysaccharides such as indigenous sugarcane polysaccharides, glucan, dextran are also detected in sugarcane plant.
In liquefaction a starch suspension containing 40-45% dry matter is gelatinised by raising the temperature to steam levels and then liquefied by addition of enzymes. Sugar enzymes hydrolyze the starch matter to maltodextrin which contain mainly oligosaccharides and dextrins. Maltodextrin’s are further converted in the next step called Saccharification. Saccharification is carried with the help glucoamylase enzymes which can hydrolyse starch completely to glucose along with maltose and isomaltose as by-products.
Many other sugar enzymes like Xylanase and Dextranase are also used in this process to reduce viscosity of the mash and for hydrolysis of Dextrans respectively. Dextrans proffer many basic problems in cane processing and juice extraction.
Sugar enzymes manufactured by Antozyme Biotech are a cost effective way of sugar refining and sucrose production. These inhibit viscosity during the biochemical reaction, which poses prime hindrance while sugar refining. These help in enhancing the quality of the sugar by elimination of hazardous chemicals during the process. These also contribute a safer working condition during the production process.
Alpha amylase is a protein enzyme EC 184.108.40.206 that hydrolyses alpha bond of large, alpha linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose.
Maltase catalyzes the hydrolysis of maltose to the simple sugar glucose.
The use of dextranase enzyme is the most efficient method for hydrolyzing the dextrans at sugar mills.
Invertase, also called beta-fructofuranosidase cleaving the terminal non-reducing beta-fructofuranoside residues, is a glycoprotein with an optimum pH 4.5 and stability at 50 °C. It is widely distributed in the biosphere especially in plants and microorganisms. Saccharomyces cerevisiae commonly called baker’s yeast is the chief strain used for the production and purification of the enzyme. Invertase in nature exists in different isoforms.